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Английский язык для флористов
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Текст книги "Английский язык для флористов"


Автор книги: Светлана Губарева






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Светлана Губарева
Английский язык для флористов

Foreword/ Предисловие

Данное учебное пособие предназначено для начинающих и практикующих флористов с языковым уровнем В1.

Цель – обеспечение флористов лексическим минимумом, необходимым для понимания терминологии, принятой в профессиональной среде на международном уровне, чтения и перевода текстов флористической тематики, пополнения активного словарного запаса для выработки коммуникативных навыков и успешных коммуникаций в международных обществах флористов.

Лексический текстовый материал представлен аутентичными текстами, заимствованными с англоязычных сайтов. Каждый раздел сопровождается списком использованных источников и ссылками на веб-страницы организаций и блоги. Упражнения предполагают как индивидуальную, так и парную/групповую аудиторную работу.

Памятка для самостоятельной работы:

Выполняйте задания в юнитах по порядку;

Внимательно читайте формулировки задания;

Ответы на тренировочные задания стоит смотреть после того, как задание полностью сделано;

При возникновении трудностей грамматического или лексического характера проанализируйте ответы и перечитайте правила. Это поможет в дальнейшем не допускать ошибок;

Используйте рефлексивный блок Now you know после прохождения юнита (отмечайте, какие пункты вы поняли и изучили), чтобы понимать, на каком этапе Вы остановились;

По прохождению всех юнитов сделайте итоговый тест. При возникновении сложностей с лексикой или грамматикой – вернитесь в соответствующий юнит для повторения.

Unit 1 Historical Overview


1. Read the following proverbs about flowers and use phrases from the table to express your opinion:

The flowers in your garden don’t smell as sweet as those in the wild, but they last much longer.

~ Chinese Proverb

Each day you can admire the moon, the snow and the flowers.

~ Japanese Proverb



2. Read the following definition of floristry and write down your own:

Floristry – the branch of botany concerned with the types, numbers, and distribution of plant species in a particular area.

___________________________________________

___________________________________________

3. Read the text and match words with the pictures:

Cultural significance

Flowers have been symbols of beauty in most civilizations of the world, and flower giving is still among the most popular of social amenities. As gifts, flowers serve as expressions of affection for spouses, other family members, and friends; as decorations at weddings and other ceremonies; as tokens of respect for the deceased; as cheering gifts to the bedridden; and as expressions of thanks or appreciation. Most flowers bought by the public are grown in commercial greenhouses or horticultural fields and then sold through wholesalers to retail florists.


4. Read the text about the history of floristry and complete the table:

Throughout the history of art, certain subjects have resonated particularly strongly with artists and audiences alike. Ranging from cats to Cupid, these revisited trends reveal art's most popular muses, with flowers at the forefront.

Rooted in ancient art and still prevalent today, depictions of blossoms, blooms, and other botanical elements can be found in many of the most significant art movements, whether carved into clay or starring in a still-life. Here, we trace the history of the humble flower in art, exploring its evolution and identifying iconographic trends that have attracted artists for centuries.

Ancient Egypt

In Ancient Egyptian mythology, the lotus flower symbolized the sun and had strong ties to the concept of creation and rebirth. A simplified and stylized lotus motif was often used to adorn artistic objects, including papyrus paintings, amulets, and ceramics.

In addition to ornamental decorations, Egyptians also employed flowers as an artistic medium. In King Tutankhamun's tomb, for example, multiple collar necklaces made of dyed linen and cut blossoms—including sunflowers, cornflowers, poppies, and blue lotuses—were found among his many trinkets and treasures.

Medieval Art

Floral motifs were also prominent in decorative art of the Middle Ages. During this period, tapestries and other large-scale textile art gained popularity, popping up in castles and churches across Europe. In many of these works, the subject—often a group of figures—is placed against a backdrop embellished with repeating floral patterns. These pieces are known as millefleur (from the French mille-fleurs, or “thousand flowers”) tapestries.

The Renaissance

During the Italian Renaissance, artists were inspired by millefleur tapestries and often incorporated floral designs into their large-scale mythological paintings. In Primavera by Botticelli, the goddess of Spring is shown sprinkling flowers on the blossom-covered forest floor, which make up most of the 190 blooms featured in the painting.

At this time, many Renaissance artists in Northern Europe specialized in still-life painting. Often, these depictions featured floral arrangements that, according to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, “typically combined flowers from different countries and even different continents in one vase and at one moment of blooming,” illustrating the importance and prevalence of botanical books and other floral studies during the Northern Renaissance.


5. Match the words from the text with their definitions:

6. Math the names of flowers with the photos:


7. Read the text about present times and put suitable verbs into the brackets:

are continue give has come

Just like every other art form, floral design is in a constant state of growth. Both traditional and line mass arrangements ________ to be important in modern design and decoration. Flower arranging _____________ a long way from the early periods. Thanks to the thousands of flower hybrids and growing techniques, flowers that used to be only available in season _________ now available all year round. Materials like Floral Foam, shaping wire, and individual water phials __________ us unlimited ways to create beautiful floral arrangements that can last longer than ever before.

8. Match the following sentences with grammar tenses:


9. Study the rules:

RULES

Present Simple:


Remember:

Add -es if the word ends in -sh, -s, -ch, -x, -z (watchES)

In verbs ending in a consonant + -y, change -y into -ies (cry – crIES)

We use Present Simple for:

Daily routine

Facts

Permanent situations

My cousin buys the same bouquet for his mother every year.

Present Perfect:


We use Present Perfect:

For past life experience without concrete date/time

Action from the past has a result

Action started in the past and is still continuing

With never/ever/just/already/yet

She has visited Floral Conferences for 5 times.

Present Continuous:


Remember:

Some letters are doubled (consonant-vowel-consonant in the end): getting, swimming

Letter e in the end disappear: write – writing

There are non-action verbs which we can use only in simple (know, want…)

We use Present Continuous for:

Actions at the moment

Temporary situations

Personal arrangements with a concrete date/time

She is arranging a rose bouquet right now.

10. Put the verbs in brackets into correct grammar tenses:

Flower trends _______ constantly ____________ (evolve).

Consumers _________ never ________(benefit) more from the emotional well-being connected to having flowers in their lives than right now

Flowers __________(have) the power to bring happiness and security into people’s lives

Flower.Style _________(share) the inspiration theme FOLK, as one of the emerging themes for flower trends.

Oasis Design Director Sandy Schroeck ___________(provide) insight into 2021 color trends for all things floral

Trendbook ____________(provide) a sneak peek into four emerging themes

The antique yellows that ____________(trend) are replaced with a hotter pink accent in the linens to provide a refreshing palette

Consumers worldwide _____________(see) that flowers and plants are important when working from home

New life-style trends ________________(impact) how people see and value flowers and plants.

Sustainability _________(be) really about caring

Now you know:

–A short history of floristry

–Phrases of agreement/disagreement

–How to differ and use Present Simple/Present Continuous/ Present Perfect

–New words:


Unit 2 Flowers in art


1. Read the quotation and explain how you understand it:

“Open the bloom of your heart and become a gift of beauty to the world.”

– Bryant McGill

2. Discuss the questions:

Do you agree that flowers can bring an inspiration? How?

Can you think of the ways flowers can be used in art?

Do you know any famous paintings with flowers?

3. Look at the paintings and match them with flowers:


4. Read the text about floral motives in paintings in different ages and complete a timeline with a name of period in art and a brief description of each period:

Renaissance – 1400s

Renaissance paintings used flowers that conveyed deep philosophical and Christian symbolism as a guide for illuminating divine mysteries. For instance, the white lily was often used as an emblem for the Virgin Mary during this period as a symbol of her purity and radiance.

Baroque & The Dutch Masters – 1600s

The Dutch masters crafted incredible still life scenes, using stark blossoms that seemed to leap beyond the canvas. Though rendered realistically, these arrangements were almost always artistic fantasies, showing flowers together that would never have been in bloom during the same season.

Impressionism & Post Impressionism – late 1800s

“The Sunflower is mine”—van Gogh. Many Impressionists and Post-Impressionists painted flowers that were personally meaningful to them, as opposed to their cultural or religious symbolism. Van Gogh for example took the sunflower as his own personal artistic signature as he created several versions of them and they became a distinctive and popular part of his body of work.

Expressionism & Fauvism – early 1900s

Rejecting perfectionist styles, expressionists and fauvists depicted everyday moments in life in a progressive way that was characterised by dramatic use of colour and highly exaggerated forms. Henri Matisse, considered to be one of the 20th century’s most important French painters, regularly depicted flowers in his works, and is famously quoted as saying ‘There are always flowers for those who want to see them’.

Surrealism & Pop Art – mid 1900s

In the mid 1900’s the depiction of flowers transformed from being observations of nature to more abstract forms. Pop Artist Andy Warhol often painted flowers in a way that could not be pinned down to a particular species.

Post-Modernism – 1970s+

From the end of the 20th century onward, flowers have starred as works of art in their own right. Like Jeff Koons’ 43-foot-tall sculpture of a West Highland Terrier which is covered in a colourful carpet of over 60,000 flowering plants, flowers are no longer just being depicted on canvas.



1400___________________________________

1600___________________________________

1860-1900______________________________

1900-1950______________________________

1950___________________________________

1970-now_______________________________

5. Look through the text again and choose in which grammar tense are the words in bold used:

Present Simple

Past Simple

Future Simple

6. Answer the questions:

In which situations is the chosen grammar tense from exc. 5 used in the text?

What should be added to the verb?

7. Study the rules:

Rules


We use Past Simple:

Facts in the past (usually with concrete time)

I bought flowers yesterday.

We use Past Continuous:

For background actions that were in process in the past

I was buying flowers when she called.

We use Past Perfect:

For actions that happened before action in the past

I went to the floral shop and realized that I had forgotten my keys at home.

8. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct past grammar tense:

a)

Renoir frequently________(paint) roses—most often red ones.

b)

He____________(paint) sunflowers in the garden when she_________(come).

c)

Piet Mondrian, being Dutch,__________(come) from a long cultural tradition of flower art.

d)

Alex _________(go) to the park to paint some lilac when he ________(understand) that he___________(forget) his pencils.

e)

Redon_________(not turn) to flower painting until he_____(be) 60 years old.

f)

When she ___________(gather) flowers she________(hear) a noise behind her.

g)

He ______________(not listen) a lecturer, because he ________(read) about foral design before.

9. Choose one of the following floral art-projects. Imagine that you’re an author of one of them. Create the story of how you made it using phrases below and past grammar tenses:

Remember to say:

Which flowers you used

What did you do



USEFUL PHRASES

Ordering information:

Firstly,…

Secondly,…

Thirdly,…

The next thing/point is …

In addition to…

Moreover

Furthermore

Also

Showing contrast:

However

Nevertheless

Despite / in spite of…

On the other hand,…

Finishing the story:

As a result

Finally

In conclusion

Now you know:

–Historical facts about using flower motives in art

–Phrases to order information, show the contrast and finish the story

–How to differ and use Past Simple/Past Continuous/ Past Perfect

Unit 3 Plant Anatomy


1. Study the names of flowers and give Russian equivalents:



2. Check the description, find out which flowers are described and fill in the gaps:

a)

One of the most interesting colors of a ________ variety is the deep purple of the Queen of the Night________.

b)

The usual_______ flower color is a shade of purple, but white, light blue, pale yellow and pink, and even a dark burgundy color are also found.

c)

_______ oil is an important ingredient in the perfume industry.

d)

Before _______was hung in houses to accompany Christmas trees, it was considered to be a sacred plant by the Druids.

e)

_________ are also known as "frost flowers" because florists often use these flowers during the autumn and winter for the preparation of various floral arrangements.

f)

_________ can live on the ground, attached to woody plants or even thrive under the ground.

g)

_________ has green leaves covered with hairs. Leaves can be heart-shaped or ovate.

h)

Other common names for _________ include lion’s mouth, calf’s snout and toad’s mouth.

i)

_____________ are edible, they have citrus-like taste.

j)

Wood of __________ is used for the production of pallets and furniture.

3. Read the text and fill in the mind-map:

Inflorescence – a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch соцветие

Form and types

Flowers present a variety of combinations in their range of colour, size, form, and anatomical arrangement. They range in size from minute blossoms to giant blooms. In some plants, such as poppy, magnolia, tulip, and petunia, each flower is relatively large and showy and is produced singly, while in other plants, such as aster, snapdragon, and lilac, the individual flowers may be very small and are borne in a distinctive cluster known as an inflorescence. Regardless of their variety, all flowers have a uniform function, the reproduction of the species through the production of seed.

Basically, each flower consists of a floral axis upon which are borne the essential organs of reproduction (stamens and pistils) and usually accessory organs (sepals and petals). The floral axis is a greatly modified stem; it is usually contracted, so that the parts of the flower are crowded together on the stem tip, the receptacle. The flower parts are usually arrayed in whorls but may also be disposed spirally.

There are commonly four distinct whorls of flower parts: (1) an outer calyx consisting of sepals; within it lies (2) the corolla, consisting of petals; (3) the androecium, or group of stamens; and in the centre is (4) the gynoecium, consisting of the pistils.

The sepals and petals together make up the perianth, or floral envelope. The sepals are usually greenish, while the petals are usually colourful and showy. The androecium, or male parts of the flower, comprise the stamens, each of which consists of a supporting filament and an anther, in which pollen is produced. The gynoecium, or female parts of the flower, comprises one or more pistils, each of which consists of an ovary, with an upright extension, the style, on the top of which rests the stigma, the pollen-receptive surface. The ovary encloses the ovules, or potential seeds.

Stamens and pistils are not present together in all flowers. When both are present the flower is said to be perfect, or bisexual, regardless of a lack of any other part that renders it incomplete. When the same plant bears unisexual flowers of both sexes, it is said to be monoecious (e.g. tuberous begonia); when the male and female flowers are on different plants, the plant is dioecious (e.g. holly); when there are male, female, and bisexual flowers on the same plant, the plant is termed polygamous.

A flower may be radially symmetrical, as in roses and petunias, in which case it is termed regular. A bilaterally symmetrical flower, as in orchids and snapdragons, is irregular.


4. Match anatomic words and definitions:



5. Match preposition of place with the pictures according to the blue ball position:


6. Choose any flower from ex. 1 and describe it according to the mind-map with the use of preposition of place and useful phrases:

USEFUL PHRASES

In the picture I can see …

There’s / There are some…

There isn’t a … / There aren’t any …

_____________________________________

_____________________________________

Now you know:

–Anatomy of flower

–Main botanical forms of flowers

–Prepositions of place

–How to describe flowers with the use of there is/ there are

–New words:


Unit 4 Floriography


1. Answer the questions:

What can flowers symbolize?

Which flowers represent love, hope, healing, and good luck?

What do you think “Floriography” means?

Floriography is the term used to represent the language of flowers.

2. Read the first part of the text and decide if the statements a-f are true or false:

The History of Flower Meanings

The symbolic language of flowers has been recognized for centuries in many countries throughout Europe and Asia. They even play a large role in William Shakespeare’s works. Mythologies, folklore, sonnets, and plays of the ancient Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, and Chinese are peppered with flower and plant symbolism—and for good reason. Nearly every sentiment imaginable can be expressed with flowers. The orange blossom, for instance, means purity, and loveliness, while the red chrysanthemum means “I love you.”

Flowery Language of the Victorian Era

Learning the special symbolism of flowers became a popular pastime during the 1800s. Nearly all Victorian homes had, alongside the Bible, guidebooks for deciphering the “language,” although definitions shifted depending on the source.

In the Victorian era, flowers were primarily used to deliver messages that couldn’t be spoken aloud. In a sort of silent dialogue, flowers could be used to answer “yes” or “no” questions. A “yes” answer came in the form of flowers handed over with the right hand; if the left hand was used, the answer was “no.”

Plants could also express aversive feelings, such as the “conceit” of pomegranate or the “bitterness” of aloe. Similarly, if given a rose declaring “devotion” or an apple blossom showing “preference,” one might return to the suitor a yellow carnation to express “disdain.”

How flowers were presented and in what condition were important. If the flowers were given upside down, then the idea being conveyed was the opposite of what was traditionally meant. How the ribbon was tied said something, too: Tied to the left, the flowers’ symbolism applied to the giver, whereas tied to the right, the sentiment was in reference to the recipient. And, of course, a wilted bouquet delivered an obvious message!

More examples of plants and their associated human qualities during the Victorian era include bluebells and kindness, peonies and bashfulness, rosemary and remembrance, and tulips and passion. The meanings and traditions associated with flowers have certainly changed over time, and different cultures assign varying ideas to the same species, but the fascination with “perfumed words” persists just the same.


3. Read the text once again and complete first two columns (flower and meaning in the Victorian era) in the table:


4. Think what the flowers from the text symbolize nowadays. Check your ideas and complete the third column of the table from exc. 3:


5. Write the names of flowers from the table in exc.3 under the pictures:


6. Read an abstract from the text above and match the usage of the construction in bold and examples:



7. Study the rules:

Rules

One might return to the suitor a yellow carnation to express “disdain.”(reason)

Watering plants is essential. (subject)



8. Open the brackets by choosing correct answers in the following sentences:

a)

I love ________(to see/seeing) so many florists getting around this and sharing ideas on ways we can limit it in our work.

b)

Lilac and the Cat avoids ________(using/to use) cellophane, floral foam, ribbons or any unnatural elements in its designs.

c)

She needs_______(to buy/buying) a new pink ribbon today.

d)

They also specialize in “interior greening”, which harnesses the power of plants _________(reducing/to reduce) indoor toxins.

e)

WildFlora’s team is made up of young women with backgrounds in dance, creative _______(to write/writing) and photography.

f)

She was happy ________(seeing/to see) how many fresh daisies there are in our shop.

g)

This company says it’s on a mission “_________(to bring/bringing) forth geographically and environmentally inspired solutions and products that are ecologically responsible.

9. Read the second part of the text and decide which flowers you would give in concrete situations written under the text using phrases for expressing opinions:

Flower Meanings by Color

Flowers provided an incredibly nuanced form of communication. Some plants, including roses, poppies, and lilies, could express a wide range of emotions based on their color alone.


Take, for instance, all of the different meanings attributed to variously colored carnations: Pink meant “I’ll never forget you”; red said “my heart aches for you”; purple conveyed capriciousness; white was for the “the sweet and lovely”; and yellow expressed romantic rejection.

Likewise, a white violet meant “innocence,” while a purple violet said that the bouquet giver’s “thoughts were occupied with love.” A red rose was used to openly express feelings of love, while a red tulip was a confession of love. The calla lily was interpreted to mean “magnificent beauty,” and a clover said “think of me.”

Unsurprisingly, the color of the rose plays a huge role. Red roses symbolize love and desire, but roses come in a variety of colors and each has their own meaning.

White rose: purity, innocence, reverence, a new beginning, a fresh start.

Red rose: love, I love you

Deep, dark crimson rose: mourning

Pink rose: grace, happiness, gentleness

Yellow rose: jealousy, infidelity

Orange rose: desire and enthusiasm

Lavender rose: love at first sight

Coral rose: friendship, modesty, sympathy

Situation 1: A man saw a beautiful woman on the street and immediately fell in love with her. He wants to show her his feelings.

Situation 2: A girl has a boyfriend who needs to go to an army. She wants him not to forget her during the year there.

Situation 3: One old man has a tragic moment in his life and now he is on his way to the funeral. Before he get there he will buy some flowers.

Situation 4: A shop assistant saw a wonderful pretty woman who was buying some dresses. He wants to say to her that she looks amazing giving her some flowers from the nearest florist shop.

USEFUL PHRASES

In my opinion, …

To my mind, …

As far as I am concerned, …

From my point of view, …

As for me / As to me, …

I would say that …

It seems to me that …

I think/ consider/ find/ feel/ believe/ suppose/ assume that …

10. Study the info graphics and express your opinion about people’s choice of flowers using the phrases from exc. 9. Provide examples to prove your point of view using names of flowers:

Floriography and Flower Gifting

Before you select a bouquet, pay attention to the meaning behind the type and color of blooms you select. Each of the flower is assigned with a specific meaning, which you may consider when you are giving flowers as a gift. Mix your own bouquet and have fun creating your own hidden messages! And remember, flowers can talk. When words fail you, you can still rely on the floriography to express your feelings.

Name of flowers:

The colour of a flower can evoke special meaning to its story. 29% of people choose bouquets based on their colour:


11. Answer the questions:

Do you believe in horoscopes? Why?

What is your star sign?

Why do you think some people like buying flowers according to the zodiacs?

12. Look at the Meanings of Flower Zodiac Signs and match star signs, personality adjectives and flowers:

Aries Flowers

Birth Date: MARCH 21 – APRIL 20

Birthday Flower: Honeysuckle

If you are born under the sign of the honeysuckle you are sweet to the senses of others. Meaning, you naturally entice others with your charm and grace. You have a smooth confidence that attracts a wide variety of friends and business partners. Just as bees can’t resist the lure of the honeysuckle – people can’t resist your energy. You are the first of the flower signs and so you are assertive and a natural leader of the vine. Honeysuckle people are strong and determined, weaving their way through any challenge, and are quite deft at finding innovative solutions.

Taurus Flowers

Birth Date: APRIL 21 – MAY 21

Birthday Flower: Poppy

If you are a poppy among the zodiac flower signs you love the finer things in life, and you love to share them with other people. You have a flare for design, a good eye for detail, and a knack for putting things together with style. Refinery comes natural to you, and you have a classy way about you that others find alluring. Poppy people are about pleasure: giving and receiving it. You enjoy security and comfort. Those with the flower sign of the poppy are very resilient too, and can weather any storm because of their patience and headstrong nature.

Gemini Flowers

Birth Date: MAY 22 – JUNE 21

Birthday Flower: Lavender

If you are a lavender flower sign you freckle your landscape with beautiful ideas. You love to share these ideas with other people and get more new insights as you do so. You are expansive in your expressions, and you always seem to be able to find your muse. You are amazingly productive, creative and have an active mind. Sometimes you feel pulled in too many directions, but part of the lavender’s beauty is that it spreads itself far and wide for all to enjoy.

Cancer Flowers

Birth Date: JUNE 22 – JULY 22

Birthday Flower: Acanthus & White Roses

Sensitivity is the watchword for acanthus flower signs. You are perceptive, and have high intuition in matters of the heart, and environment. You often react to others (even when they don’t speak their feelings, you still know what is going on inside their hearts), and your surroundings. You are warm and sympathetic, and a natural healer too. Acanthus zodiac flower signs are highly influenced by outside forces – especially the pull of the moon. A secure home life, surrounded by friends and family who love you and you love back often help ground you and keep you from falling prey to negative influences.

Leo Flowers

Birth Date: JULY 23 – AUGUST 22

Birthday Flower: Sunflower & Marigold

Sunflower signs are warm, open, and natural leaders. You rise to any occasion with confidence and assurance – you have no doubt that you are the perfect person for any challenge, and you know how to reach to the top. You tend to be the center of attention and others look to you for advice and mentoring. You are a loving, faithful and tenderhearted friend. You are generous and enjoy a wide range of intellectual gifts.

Virgo Flowers

Birth Date: AUGUST 24 – SEPTEMBER 22

Birthday Flower: Morning Glory & Buttercups

Morning glory zodiac flower signs are thoughtful and reflective. You tend to think and plan first before you take any action. You are organized and very observant. You have a natural eye for detail, and can be very analytical. You love to help people, and often use your organization skills to help others who struggle in "getting their act together." You bloom beautifully right where you are planted, and you have a neat way of making things right and tidy. People come to you for guidance and healing.

Libra Flowers

Birth Date: SEPTEMBER 23 – OCTOBER 23

Birthday Flower: Large Roses & Bluebells

The rose zodiac flower sign exposes the truth in all things. If you have this flower sign you have a unique ability to see the hidden meanings in things and expose the underlying evidence for what it is. You have an eye for classic beauty, and you love to surround yourself with beautiful things too. You are attracted to philosophy, poetry and art. Because you see the beauty and truth in all things, you do not tolerate injustice or cruelty. You are most happy when you are with friends and family – taking a walk and enjoying nature.


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